رسانندگی الکتریکی آمیخته پلی‌اتیلن پرچگالی- پلی‌آمید 6 دارای نانولوله کربن چنددیواره

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

یزد، دانشگاه یزد، پردیس فنی و مهندسی، گروه مهندسی شیمی و پلیمر، صندوق پستی 741-89195

10.22063/jipst.2020.1729

چکیده

فرضیه: یکی از روش‌های بهبود رسانندگی الکتریکی نانوکامپوزیت‌ها استفاده از آمیخته‌های امتزاج‌ناپذیر دارای پرکننده رسانا بر اساس مفهوم تراوایی دوتایی است. در پژوهش حاضر، خواص الکتریکی و رئولوژیکی آمیخته پلی‌اتیلن پرچگالی-پلی‌آمید6 (HDPE/PA6) در مجاورت نانولوله‌های کربن چنددیواره (MWCNTs) بررسی شد.
روش‌ها: نمونه‌های بر پایه آمیخته HDPE/PA6 به همراه پلی‌اتیلن پرچگالی پیوندخورده با مالئیک انیدرید (HDPE-g-MA) به‌عنوان سازگارکننده و نیز دارای 1، 3 و %5 وزنی MWCNTs با روش اختلاط مذاب در مخلوط‌کن داخلی تهیه شدند. سپس، آزمون‌های مختلف برای بررسی شکل‌شناسی، رئولوژی و خواص الکتریکی نمونه‌های دارای مقدارهای وزنی مختلف MWCNT انجام و نتایج حاصل مطالعه شد.
یافته‌ها: تصاویر میکروسکوپی الکترونی پویشی (SEM) نمونه پرنشده شکل‌شناسی به‌هم‌پیوسته را نشان داد و وجود MWCNTs در آمیخته نیز موجب کاهش تنش بین‌سطحی به شکل‌شناسی به‌هم پیوسته و سازگاری آمیخته شد. خواص رئولوژیکی با طیف‌نمایی رئومتر مکانیکی مذاب (RMS) مطالعه شد. نتایج نشان داد، با افزایش مقدار MWCNTs، مدول ذخیره و گرانروی مختلط نانوکامپوزیت‌ها نسبت به آمیخته خالص افزایش یافت و مدول ذخیره در نهایت به ناحیه مسطح در بسامد کم ‌رسید که بیانگر آستانه تراوایی رئولوژیکی نانوکامپوریت است. مدول ذخیره و ضریب اتلاف نمونه‌های آمیخته با آزمون دینامیکی-مکانیکی (DMA) ارزیابی شد. با افزایش مقدار MWCNT، بیشینه ضریب اتلاف مربوط به فاز PA6 در نانوکامپوزیت‌ها نسبت به فاز مشابه در آمیخته پرنشده کاهش یافت. همچنین، دمای بیشینه ضریب اتلاف فاز PA6 به دماهای بیشتر جابه‌جا شد، در حالی‌که بیشینه ضریب اتلاف فاز HDPE تقریباً ثابت بود که بیانگر وجود مقدار بیشتری MWCNTs در فاز PA6 است. نتایج رسانندگی الکتریکی با روش کاونده چهارنقطه‌ای نشان داد، رسانندگی الکتریکی نانوکامپوزیت با افزودن %5 وزنی MWCNTs افزایش چشمگیری یافته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Electrical Conductivity of High Density Polyethylene/Polyamide 6 Blend Induced by Multi-wall Carbon Nanotubes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bentolhoda Liravi
  • Mitra Tavakoli
Department of Chemical and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yazd University, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd, Iran
چکیده [English]

Hypothesis: One method to improve the electrical conductivity of nanocomposites is the use of immiscible blends containing conductive fillers based on the concept of double percolation. In this research, the electrical and rheological properties of high density polyethylene/polyamide 6 (HDPE/ PA6) blend in presence of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were investigated.
Methods: Samples based on HDPE/PA6 blend with maleic anhydride-grafted high density polyethylene (HDPE-g-MA) as a compatibilizer and also containing 1, 3 and 5% (by wt) MWCNTs were prepared by melt mixing process in an internal mixer. Then different analyses were performed to investigate the morphology, rheology and electrical properties of samples with different weight percentages of MWCNT and the results were studied.
Findings: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of an unfilled blend showed co-continuous morphology and the presence of MWCNTs in the blend also resulted in co-continuous morphology1 and compatibility of the blend with reduced interfacial tension. The rheological properties were characterized using melt rheometric mechanical spectroscopy (RMS). The results showed that with increasing MWCNT content, the storage modulus and complex viscosity of the nanocomposites increased compared to the neat blend and the storage modulus eventually reached a low-frequency plateau region, indicating a rheological percolation threshold of nanocomposite. Storage modulus and loss factor of the blend samples were evaluated using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). With increasing MWCNT content, the maximum loss factor of PA6 phase in the nanocomposites decreased with respect to similar phase in the unfilled blend, whereas the maximum loss factor of HDPE phase remained almost constant, indicating a higher presence of MWCNTs in PA6 phase. Also the temperature of the maximum loss factor of the PA6 phase shifted to higher temperatures. The electrical conductivity results according to the four-point probe method showed that the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite increased significantly by adding 5%  (by wt) MWCNTs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • High Density Polyethylene
  • polyamide 6
  • multiwall carbon nanotube
  • electrical percolation
  • Rheology
  1. Razavi M., Ghomi M.T., Taheri-behrooz F., and Liaghat G., Effect of Bending Load on the Electrical Conductivity of Carbon/Epoxy Composites Filled with Nanoparticles, Iran. J. Polym. Sci. Technol. (Persian), 32, 79-92, 2019.
  2. Yan X., Gu J., Zheng G., Guo J., Galaska A., Yu J., Khan M., Sun L., Young D., Zhang Q., Wei S., and Guo Z., Lowly Loaded Carbon Nanotubes Induced High Electrical Conductivity and Giant Magnetoresistance in Ethylene/1-Octene Copolymers, Polymer, 103, 315-327, 2016.
  3. Pham V.H., Dang T.T., Hur S.H., Kim E.J., and Chung J.S., Highly Conductive Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite Prepared by Self-Assembly of PMMA Latex and Graphene Oxide Through Electrostatic Interaction, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 4, 2630-2636, 2012.
  4. Alig I., Pötschke P., Lellinger D., Skipa T., Pegel S., Kasaliwal G.R., and Villmow T., Establishment, Morphology and Properties of Carbon Nanotube Networks in Polymer Melts, Polymer, 53, 4-28, 2012.
  5. Xu S., Rezvanian O., Peters K., and Zikry M.A., The Viability and Limitations of Percolation Theory in Modeling the Electrical Behavior of Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites, Nanotechnol., 24, 1-7, 2013.
  6. Bauhofer W. and Kovacs J.Z., A Review and Analysis of Electrical Percolation in Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composites, Compos. Sci. Technol., 69, 1486-1498, 2009.
  7. Zare Y. and Rhee K.Y., Development of a Conventional Model to Predict the Electrical Conductivity of Polymer/Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposites by Interphase, Waviness and Contact Effects, Compos., Part A-Appl. Sci. Manuf., 100, 305-312, 2017.
  8. Zare Y. and Rhee K.Y., A Simple Methodology to Predict the Tunneling Conductivity of Polymer/CNT Nanocomposites by the Roles of Tunneling Distance, Interphase and CNT Waviness, RSC Adv., 7, 34912-34921, 2017.
  9. Seidel G.D. and Lagoudas D.C., A Micromechanics Model for the Electrical Conductivity of Nanotube-Polymer Nanocomposites, J. Compos. Mater., 43, 917-941, 2009.
  10. Brigandi P.J., Cogen J.M., and Pearson R.A., Electrically Conductive Multiphase Polymer Blend Carbon-Based Composites, Polym. Eng. Sci., 54, 1-16, 2014.
  11. Göldel A., Kasaliwal G., and Pötschke P., Selective Localization and Migration of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes in Blends of Polycarbonate and Poly(styrene-acrylonitrile), Macromol. Rapid Commun., 30,. 423-429, 2009.
  12. Gao T., Li Y.Y., Bao R.Y., Liu Z.Y., Xie B.H., Yang M.B., and Yang W., Tailoring Co-continuous Like Morphology in Blends with Highly Asymmetric Composition by MWCNTs: Towards Biodegradable High-Performance Electrical Conductive Poly(l-lactide)/Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) Blends, Compos. Sci. Technol., 152, 111-119, 2017.
  13. Gong T., Liu M., Liu H., Peng S., Li T., Bao R., Yang W., Xie B., Yang M., and Guo Z., Selective Distribution and Migration of Carbon Nanotubes Enhanced Electrical and Mechanical Performances in Polyolefin Elastomers, Polymer, 110, 1-11, 2017.
  14. Sumita M., Sakata K., Hayakawa Y., Asai S., Miyasaka K., and Tanemura M., Double Percolation Effect on the Electrical Conductivity of Conductive Particles Filled Polymer Blends, Colloid Polym. Sci., 270, 134-139, 1992.
  15. Sumita M., Sakata K., Asai S., Miyasaka K., and Nakagawa H., Dispersion of Fillers and the Electrical Conductivity of Polymer Blends Filled with Carbon Black, Polym. Bull., 25, 265-271, 1991.
  16. Poyekar A., Bhattacharyya A., Panwar A., and Simon G., Evolution of Phase Morphology and “Network-Like” Structure of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes in Binary Polymer Blends During Melt-Mixing, Polym. Eng. Sci., 55, 429-442, 2015.
  17. Maiti S., Shrivastava N., and Khatua B., Reduction of Percolation Threshold Through Double Percolation in Melt-Blended Polycarbonate/Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene/Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Elastomer Nanocomposites, Polym. Compos., 34, 570-579, 2013.
  18. Mao C., Zhu Y., and Jiang W., Design of Electrical Conductive Composites: Tuning the Morphology to Improve the Electrical Properties of Graphene Filled Immiscible Polymer Blends, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 4, 5281-5286, 2012.
  19. Chen G., Lu J., and Wu D., The Electrical Properties of Graphite Nanosheet Filled Immiscible Polymer Blends, Mater. Chem. Phys., 104, 240-243, 2007.
  20. Du J., Zhao L., Zeng Y., Zhang L., Li F., Liu P., and Liu C., Comparison of Electrical Properties between Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Nanosheet/High Density Polyethylene Composites with a Segregated Network Structure, Carbon, 49, 1094-1100, 2011.
  21. Wu D., Lv Q., Feng S., Chen J., Chen Y., Qiu Y., and Yao X., Polylactide Composite Foams Containing Carbon Nanotubes and Carbon Black: Synergistic Effect of Filler on Electrical Conductivity, Carbon, 95, 380-387, 2015.
  22. Che J., Wu K., Lin Y., Wang K., and Fu Q., Largely Improved Thermal Conductivity of HDPE/Expanded Graphite/Carbon Nanotubes Ternary Composites via Filler Network-Network Synergy, Compos. Part A-Appl. Sci. Manuf., 99, 32-40, 2017.
  23. Liu Y. and Kumar S., Polymer/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite Fibers-A Review, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 6, 6069-6087, 2014.
  24. Moud A.A., Javadi A., Nazockdast H., Fathi A., and Altstaedt V., Effect of Dispersion and Selective Localization of Carbon Nanotubes on Rheology and Electrical Conductivity of Polyamide 6 (PA6), Polypropylene (PP), and PA6/PP Nanocomposites, J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys., 53, 368-378, 2015.
  25. Qu Y., Zhang W., Dai K., Zheng G., Liu C., Chen J., and Shen C., Tuning of the PTC and NTC Effects of Conductive CB/PA6/HDPE Composite Utilizing an Electrically Superfine Electrospun Network, Mater. Lett., 132, 48-51, 2014.
  26. Li Y. and Shimizu H., Conductive PVDF/PA6/CNTs Nanocomposites Fabricated by Dual Formation of Cocontinuous and Nanodispersion Structures, Macromolecules, 41, 5339-5344, 2008.
  27. Chatreenuwat B., Nithitanakul M., and Grady B., The Effect of Zinc Oxide Addition on the Compatibilization Efficiency of MA-g-HDPE Compatibilized for HDPE/PA6 Blends, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 103, 3871-81, 2007.
  28. Argoud A., Ceccia S., and Sotta P., Morphologies in Polyamide 6/High Density Polyethylene Blends with High Amounts of Reactive Compatibilizer, Eur. Polym. J., 50, 177-189, 2014.
  29. Hamid F., Akhbar S., and Halim K.H.K., Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Polyamide 6/HDPE-g-MAH/High Density Polyethylene, Procedia. Eng., 68, 418-424, 2013.
  30. Faridirad F., Ahmadi S., and Barmar M., Polyamide/Carbon Nanoparticles Nanocomposites: A Review, Polym. Eng. Sci., 57, 475-494, 2017.
  31. Jiang C., Filippi S., and Magagnini P., Reactive Compatibilizer Precursors for LDPE/PA6 Blends. II: Maleic Anhydride Grafted Polyethylenes, Polymer, 44, 2411-2422, 2003.
  32. Chen J., Shi Y., Yang J., Zhang N., Huang T., Chen C., Wang Y., and Zhou Z., A Simple Strategy to Achieve Very Low Percolation Threshold via the Selective Distribution of Carbon Nanotubes at the Interface of Polymer Blends, J. Mater. Chem., 22, 22398-22404, 2012.
  33. Pötschke P., Pegel S., Claes M., and Bonduel M., A Novel Strategy to Incorporate Carbon Nanotubes into Thermoplastic Matrices, Macromol. Rapid Commun., 29, 244-251, 2008.
  34. Fenouillot F., Cassagnau P., and Majesté J.C., Uneven Distribution of Nanoparticles in Immiscible Fluids: Morphology Development in Polymer Blends, Polymer, 50, 1333-1350, 2009.
  35. Nuriel S., Liu L., Barber A.H., and Wagner H.D., Direct Measurement of Multiwall Nanotube Surface Tension, Chem. Phys. Lett., 404, 263-266, 2005.
  36. Bose S., Bhattacharyya A.R., Bondre A.P., Kulkarni A.R., and Pötschke P., Rheology, Electrical Conductivity, and the Phase Behavior of Cocontinuous PA6/ABS Blends with MWNT: Correlating the Aspect Ratio of MWNT with the Percolation Threshold, J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys., 46, 1619-1631, 2008.
  37. Yang J., Qi X., Zhang N., Huang T., and Wang, Y., Carbon Nanotubes Toughened Immiscible Polymer Blends, Compos. Commun., 7, 51-64, 2018.
  38. Zhang L., Wan C., and Zhang Y., Morphology and Electrical Properties of Polyamide 6/Polypropylene/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Composites, Compos. Sci. Technol., 69, 2212-2217, 2009.
  39. Jeddi J., Katbab A.A., and Mehranvari M., Investigation of Microstructure, Electrical Behavior, and EMI Shielding Effectiveness of Silicone Rubber/Carbon Black/Nanographite Hybrid Composites, Polym. Compos., 40, 4056-4066, 2019.
  40. Sukumaran S.K., Kobayashi T., Takeda S., Khosla A., Furukawa H., and Sugimoto M., Electrical Conductivity and Linear Rheology of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube/Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Polymer Nanocomposites Prepared by Melt Mixing and Solution Casting, J. Electrochem. Soc., 166, B3091-B3095, 2019.
  41. Pramoda K.P. and Liu T., Effect of Moisture on the Dynamic Mechanical Relaxation of Polyamide-6/Clay Nanocomposites, J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys., 42, 1823-1830, 2004.
  42. Gomari S., Ehsani Namin P., and Ghasemi I., Polymer-Graphene Nanoplatelets Nanocomposites: Properties and Applications, Iran. J. Polym. Sci. Technol. (Persian), 32, 101-121, 2019.