عنوان مقاله [English]
Water shortage is one of the most important environmental problems in arid and semi-arid areas which cause complications in land vegetations. The use of superabsorbent hydrogel is one of the most vital methods, which helps to optimize agricultural irrigations. The purpose of this research is preparation and study on properties the superabsorbent hydrogels by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid monomers using zeolite as nanoclay particles (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15). The optimum amount of nanoparticles in relation to its effect on superabsorbent structure and properties, such as water absorbency, was investigated through designing experiments using FFD software. We used methylene bisacrylamide and ammonium persulfate as crosslinker and initiator, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) test results showed that the addition of nanoclay up to 0.1 g caused improvement in the physical and chemical properties of superabsorbent such as thermal resistance, porous structure and uniform network structure. The superabsorbent hydrogel could absorb 1100 (g/g) distilled water. The water absorption and water retention of superabsorbent were studied by loading it in 5 different soil texture classes which were 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0 mixture fractions of sand/loam soil. As a result, it was observed that in the first week after irrigation, the best retention of initial moisture belonged to the soil with 50% sand texture, and also the soil with sand texture returned to its initial weight after 53 days (i.e., 30 days later than the control sample).
Kohnke H. and Soil Physics (McGrew-Hill Publications in the Agricultural Sciences), 1st ed., 1982 (Translated by Rafi M. Persian, Tehran University, 1366).
Tolk J.A., Evett S.R., Xu W., and Schwartz R.C., Constraints on Water Use Efficiency of Drought Tolerant Maize Grown in a Semi-Arid Environment, Field Crops Res., 186, 66-77. 2016.
Porkka M., Gerten D., Schaphoff S., Siebert S., and Kummu M., Causes and Trends of Water Scarcity in Food Production, Environ. Res. Lett., 11, 015001, 2016.
Musyimi D.M., Ecology and Physiology of Plant Growth in Relation to Soil Salinity, Sci. Agri., 11, 26-31. 2015.
Karimi A., Noshadi M., and Ahmadzadeh M., Effect of Superabsorbent Polymer (Igeta) on Crop, Soil Water and Irrigation Interval, J. Water Soil Sci., 12, 403-414, 2009.
Ahmed E.M., Hydrogel Preparation, Characterization and Application, J. Adv. Res., 6, 105-121, 2015.
Ullah F., Othman M.B.H., Javed F., Ahmad Z., and Akil H.M., Classification, Processing and Application of Hydrogels: A Review, Mater. Sci. Eng: C, 57, 414-433. 2015.
Zohuriaan-Mehr M.J. and Kabiri K., Superabsorbent Polymer Materials: A Reviw, Iran. Polym. J., 17, 451-477¸ 2008.
Plumb T.R. and Kraus K.¸ Oak Woodland Artificial Regeneration Correlating Soil Moisture to Seedling ¸Survival, USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep., 126, 91-94, 1991.
Choudhary M.I., Shalaby A.A., and Al-Omran A.M., Water Holding Capacity and Evaporation of Calcareous Soils as Affected by Four Synthetic Polymers, Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 26, 2205-2215, 1995.
Sojka R.E. and Lentz R.D., Reducing Furrow Irrigation Erosion with Polyacrylamide (PAM). J. Prod. Agric, 10, 47-52. 1997.
Nnadi F. and Brave C., Environmentally Friendly Superabsorbent Polymers for Water Conservation in Agricultural Lands, J. Soil Sci. Environ. Manage., 2, 206-211¸ 2011.
Liu Z.S. and Rempel G.L., Preparation of Superabsorbent Polymers by Crosslinking Acrylic Acid and Acrylamide Copolymers, J, Appl. Polym. Sci., 64, 1345-1353, 1997.
Zhang J., Chen H., and Wang A., Study on Superabsorbent Composite, IV. Effects of Organification Degree of Attapulgite on Swelling Behaviors of Polyacrylamide/Organo- Attapulgite Composites, Eur. Polym. J., 42, 101-108. 2006.
Omidian H.¸ Hashemi S.A.¸ Sammes P.G.¸ and Meldrum I.G., Polymer, 39, 6697- , 1998.
Huang Y., Zeng M., Ren J., Wang J., Fan L., and Xu Q., Preparation and Swelling Properties of Graphene Oxide/Poly(acrylicacid-co-acrylamide) Super-absorbent Hydrogel Nanocomposites. Colloids Surf.¸ A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects, 401, 97-106, 2012.
Lo C.-W., Zhu D., and Jiang H., An Infrared-Light Responsive Graphene-Oxide Incorporated Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Hydrogel Nanocomposite, Soft Matter., 7, 5604-5609, 2011.
Sun S. and Wu P., A One-Step Strategy for Thermal- and pH-responsive Grapheneoxide Interpenetrating Polymer Hydrogel Networks, J. Mater. Chem., 21, 4095-4097, 2011.
Zheng Y., Li P., Zhang J., and Wang A., Study on Superabsorbent Composite XVI. Synthesis, Characterization and Swelling Behaviors of Poly(sodium acrylate)/Vermiculite Superabsorbent Composites, Eur. Polym. J., 43, 1691-1698. 2007.
Jacox Marilyn E., Vibration and Electronic Energy Levels of Polyatomic Transient Molecules, Supplement B, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 32, 1-441, 2003.
Li A. and Wang A., Synthesis and Properties of Clay-Based Superabsorbent Composite, Eur. Polym. J., 41, 1630-1637, 2005.
Zhang J. and Wang A., Study on Superabsorbent Composites. IX: Synthesis, Characterization and Swelling Behaviors of Polyacrylamide/Clay Composites Based on Various Clays, React. Funct. Polym., 6, 737-745, 2007.
Mathakiya I., Vangani V., and Rakshit A.K., Terpolymerization of Acrylamide¸Acrylic Acid¸ and Acrylonitrile: Synthesis and Properties, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 69, 389-415, 1998.
Saeidi A., Katbab A.A., Vasheghani-Farahani E., and Afshar F., Formulation Design, Optimization, Characterization and Swelling Behaviour of a Cationic Superabsorbent Based on a Copolymer of [3-(methacryloylamino)propyl]Trimethylammonium Chloride and Acrylamide, Polym. Int., 53, 92-100, 2004.
Wang L., Zhang J., Wang A., Removal of Methylene Blue From Aqueous Solution Using Chitosan-g-Poly(acrylic acid)/Montmorillonite Superadsorbent Nanocomposite, Colloids Surf.¸ A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects, 322, 47-53, 2008.
Wu J.H., Wei Y.L., Lin J.M., and Lin S.B., Study on Starch-graft-Acrylamide/Mineral Powder Superabsorbent Composite, Polymer, 44¸6513-6520¸ 2003.
Zhou W.J., Yao K.J., and Kurth M.J., Synthesis and Swelling Properties of the Copolymer of Acrylamide with Anionic Monomers, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 62, 911-915, 1996.
Li A., Zhang J., and Wang A., Utilization of Starch and Clay for the Preparation of Superabsorbent Composite, Bioresour. Technol., 98, 327-332, 2007.
Li A., Wang A.Q., and Chen J.M., Studies on Poly(acrylic acid)/Attapulgite Superabsorbent Composite. I. Synthesis and Characterization, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 92, 1596-1603, 2004.
Chen J.W. and Zhao Y.M., Relationship Between Water Absorbency and Reaction Conditions in Aqueous Solution Polymerization of Polyacrylate Superabsorbents, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 75, 808-814¸ 2000.
Chen J.W. and Zhao Y.M., An Efficient Preparation Method for Superabsorbent Polymers, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 74, 119-124¸ 1999.
Flory P.J., Principles of Polymer Chemistry, New York, Cornell University, Chapt. XIII, 1953.
Irani M., Hanafi I., and Zulkifli A., Preparation and Properties of Linear Low-Density Polyethylene-g-Poly(acrylicacid)/Organo-Montmorillonite Superabsorbent Hydrogel Composites¸ Polym. Test., 32, 502-512, 2013.
Feng E., Ma G., Wu Y., Wang H., and Lei Z., Preparation and Properties of Organic–Inorganic Composite Superabsorbent Based on Xanthan Gum and Loess, Carbohydr. Polym., 111, 463-468, 2014.
Abedi-Koupai J. and Asadkazemi J., Effects of a Hydrophilic Polymer on the Field Performance of an Ornamental Plant (Cupressus arizonica) under Reduced Irrigation Regimes, Iran. J. Polym. Sci. Technol., (Persian), 15, 715-725, 2006.
Abedi-Koupai J., Eslamian S.S., and Asad-Kazemi J., Enhancing the Available Water Content in Unsaturated Soil Zone Using Hydrogel, to Improve Plant Growth Indices, Ecohydrol. Hydrobiol, 8, 67-75, 2008.