مروری بر کاربردهای نانومواد پلیمری در حفاظت آثار تاریخی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 تهران، پژوهشگاه پلیمر و پتروشیمی، پژوهشکده فرایند، گروه رنگ و روکش‌های سطح، صندوق پستی 112-14975

2 تهران، پژوهشگاه میراث فرهنگی و گردشگری، پژوهشکده حفاظت و مرمت آثار تاریخی ـ فرهنگی، کد پستی 13431-11369

چکیده

آثار تاریخی با توجه به قدمت آن‌ها در معرض انواع تخریب‌ها قرار دارند. از جمله این تخریب‌ها می‌توان به تخریب توسط انسان‌ها (واندالیسم) تا تخریب آثار یا مرمت‌های انجام شده روی آن‌ها به‌وسیله عوامل محیطی مانند رطوبت و نور اشاره کرد. نانو‌فناوری روش‌ها و راه‌های ابداعی جدیدی را برای حفظ آثار تاریخی فراهم کرده است. یکی از این روش‌ها شامل تهیه نانومواد با ابعاد ریزتر، کارآمدتر و پوشش‌دهی آن‌ها با فرایندهای مختلف از جمله سل ‌ـ‌ ژل است. در این مقاله، انواع پوشش‌های پلیمری متداول در حفاظت آثار تاریخی ارائه شده است. در این باره، ابتدا به انواع ارزیابی‌هایی پرداخته شده که باید برای اقدام‌های حفاظتی انجام شوند. سپس، به نقش مهم ارگانوسیلیکون‌ها در تهیه نانوذرات سیلیکا و اثر آن‌ها بر خواص پوشش اشاره شده است. دسته مهم دیگر از پلیمرهایی که در تهیه پوشش‌های پلیمری محافظ آثار تاریخی کاربرد دارند، پلیمرهای آکریلی هستند. با توجه به اهمیت روزافزون و جدید هیبریدهای آلی-معدنی در تهیه پوشش‌های نانوکامپوزیتی این دسته به‌طور مجزا بررسی شده است. این ترکیبات روی زمینه‌های مختلف پوشش داده می‌شوند تا خواص متنوعی مانند آب‌گریزی و نوشتارناپذیری را در پوشش‌ها ایجاد کنند. در این مقاله، افزون بر کاربرد نانومواد در تهیه پوشش‌های متداول پلیمری برای کاربرد در حوزه حفاظت و مرمت، به سایر کاربردهای نانوفناوری در تهیه نانومواد برای استحکام‌بخشی نقاشی دیواری، پاک‌سازی پلیمرهای فرسوده از روی آثار تاریخی و استحکام‌بخشی آثار سلولوزی در برابر قارچ نیز اشاره شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Survey on Applications of Nanomaterials for Conservation of Artworks

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amir Ershad-Langroudi 1
  • Hamid Fadaei 2
  • Kamran Ahmadi 2
1 Department of Color and Surface Coating, Faculty of Polymer Processing, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box: 14975-115 Tehran, Iran
2 Institute for Conservation and Restoration of Cultural and Historical Monuments, Research Institute of Cultural Heritage and Tourism, Postal Code: 11369-13431, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Artworks and historical monuments are often subjected to various damages and deteriorations, according to their age. Damages on artworks or repaired artworks may be provoked by human (vandalism) or by environmental factors such as humidity and light (UV). Nanotechnology provides new methods and innovative ways for the preservation of historical monuments. One of these methods is the preparation of more efficient nanomaterials with smaller particle size, and applying a thin layer coating of materials by different processes such as sol-gel method. In the current study, coating by a variety of conventional polymers is discussed with respect to their protective characteristics of historical monuments in addition to different assessment methods on their protection mechanisms. This study is extended to the important role of organosilicons for preparation of silica nanoparticles and latter protection capacity on coating properties. Another important category of polymers which may provide protective coatings for historical artworks are acrylic polymers. By considering the increasing importance of organic-inorganic hybrids in protection mechanism, some discussions are focused on such hybrids as nanocomposite coatings. The hybrids can be coated on different substrates to impart different properties such as hydrophobicity and anti-graffiti properties. In addition to the use of nanomaterials in conventional polymer coatings for protection and restoration of historical monuments, this paper further explains the preparation of nanomaterials for their usefulness in consolidating wall paintings, removal of aged polymers from historical monuments and enhancing cellulosic paper stability against fungal growth.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • nanoparticles
  • sol-gel
  • hydrophobic
  • coating
  • protection

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Baglioni P., Dei L., Piqué F., Sarti G., and Ferroni E., New Autogenous Lime-Based Grouts Used in the Conservation of Lime-Based Wall Paintings, Stud. Conserv., 42, 43-54, 1997.
Baglioni P., Vargas R.C., Chelazzi D., Gonzàlez M.C., DespratA., and Giorgi R., The Maya Site of Calakmul: In Situ Preservation of Wall Paintings and Limestone Using Nanotechnology, Stud. Conserv., 51, 162-169, 2006.
Carretti E., Dei L., Weiss R.G., and Baglioni P., A New Class of Gels for the Conservation of Painted Surfaces, J. Cultur.Herit., 9, 386-393, 2008.
Carretti E., Bonini M., Dei L., Berrie B.H., Angelova L.V., Baglioni P., and Weiss R.G., New Frontiers in Materials Science for Art Conservation: Responsive Gels and Beyond, Acc. Chem. Res., 43, 751-760, 2010.
Carretti E., Chelazzi D., Rocchigiani G., Baglioni P., Poggi G., and Dei L., Interactions Between Nanostructured Calcium Hydroxide and Acrylate Copolymers: Implications in Cultural Heritage Conservation, Langmuir, 29, 9881-9890, 2013.
Baglioni P., Dei L., Carretti E., and Giorgi R., Gels for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage, Langmuir, 25, 8373-8374, 2009.
Bonelli N., Chelazzi D., Baglioni, M., Giorgi R., and Baglioni P., Confined Aqueous Media for the Cleaning of Cultural Heritage: Innovative Gels and Amphiphile-Based Nanofluids, Dillmann P., Bellot-Gurlet L., and Nenner I. (Eds.), Nanosci. and Cultural Heritage, 283-311, Atlantis, 2016.
Baglioni P., Carretti E., Chelazzi D., Dei L., Giorgi R.,
Grassi S., Macherelli A., and Salvadori B., 2A - Colloidal Science and Nanotechnology for Cultural Heritage Conservation, http://www.researchgate.net/publication/238766767, Available Online July 2013.
Giorgi R., Bozzi C., Dei L., Gabbiani C., Ninham B.W., and Baglioni P., Nanoparticles of Mg(OH)2: Synthesis and Application to Paper Conservation. Langmuir, 21, 8495-8501, 2005.
Giorgi R., Chelazzi D., and Baglioni P., Nanoparticles of Calcium Hydroxide for Wood Conservation, The Deacidification of the Vasa Warship, Langmuir, 21, 10743-10748, 2005.
Poggi G., Giorgi R., Toccafondi N., Katzur V., and Baglioni P., Hydroxide Nanoparticles for Deacidification and Concomitant Inhibition of Iron-Gall Ink Corrosion of Paper, Langmuir, 26, 19084-19090, 2010.
Giorgi R., Dei L., Schettino C., and Baglioni P., A New Method for Paper Deacidification Based on Calcium Hydroxide Dispersed in Nonaqueous Media, Stud. Conserv., 47, 69-73, 2002.
Poggi G., Toccafondi N., Melita L.N., Knowles J.C., Bozec L., Giorgi R., and Baglioni P., Calcium Hydroxide Nanoparticles for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage: New Formulations for the Deacidification of Cellulose-Based Artifacts, Appl. Phys. A, 114, 685-693, 2014.
Poggi G., Giorgi R., Mirabile A., Xing H., and Baglioni P., A stabilizer-Free Non-Polar Dispersion for the Deacidification of Contemporary Art On Paper, J. Cult. Herit., 26, 44-52, 2017.
Andriulo F., Giorgi R., Steindal C.C., Kutzke H., Braovac S., and Baglioni P., Hybrid Nanocomposites Made of Diol-Modified Silanes and Nanostructured Calcium Hydroxide. Applications to Alum-treated Wood, Pure Appl. Chem., 89, 29-39, 2017.
Taghiyari H.R., Kalantari A., and Ershad-Langroudi A., Effects of Wollastonite Nanofibers on Biological Resistance of Historical Paper Against Aspergillus Niger, Lignocellulose, 3, 111-118, 2014.