کاربرد هیدروژل‌ها در حذف آلاینده‌های آبی با روش جذب ‌سطحی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

ارومیه، دانشگاه صنعتی ارومیه، گروه مهندسی شیمی، کدپستی 5716617165

چکیده

یون‌های سنگین فلزی (مانند Cd+2، وPb+2، وCu+2 و Mg+2) و آلاینده‌های آلی موجود در پساب‌های صنعتی (مانند رنگینه‌ها)، از عوامل اصلی آلودگی منابع آبی هستند. این آلاینده‌ها برای انسان، گیاهان و جانوران آبزی سمی هستند و باید پیش از دفع، از پساب حذف شوند. روش‌های تصفیه مختلفی مانند انعقاد و لخته‌سازی، اکسایش، فیلترکردن غشایی و جذب‌ سطحی برای حذف آلاینده‌ها از محیط آبی گزارش شده ‌است. اکثر این روش‌ها محدودیت‌ها و معایبی از دیدگاه‌های بازده، عملی‌بودن و اقتصادی به همراه دارند. روش‌ جذب‌ سطحی از بعد اقتصادی، انعطاف‌پذیری و سهولت طراحی فرایند و گستردگی جاذب‌های در دسترس به‌عنوان روش مؤثری برای حذف انواع آلاینده‌های آلی و غیرآلی موجود در محیط آبی پیشنهاد می‌شود. هیدروژل‌ها شبکه‌های پلیمری سه‌بعدی و انعطاف‌پذیری هستند که کاربردهای فراوانی در زمینه‌های زیست‌پزشکی، دارورسانی، کشاورزی، زیست‌فناوری و فرایندهای جداسازی دارند. با توجه ‌به خواص فیزیکی و شیمیایی ویژه هیدروژل‌ها مانند آب‌دوستی، تورم‌پذیری، ظرفیت جذب زیاد، وجود گروه‌های عاملی ویژه مختلف و اصلاح‌پذیری ساختار آن‌ها، علاقه به پژوهش در زمینه توسعه و استفاده از هیدروژل‌ها به‌عنوان جاذب در سامانه‌های تصفیه افزایش یافته ‌است. هیدروژل‌ها عملکرد چشمگیری در حذف محدوده گسترده‌ای از آلاینده‌های آبی مانند فلزات سنگین و رنگینه‌های سمی با روش جذب ‌سطحی نشان داده‌اند. با توجه به نبود جمع‌بندی از کاربرد هیدروژل‌ها در جذب ‌سطحی آلاینده‌ها، در این مقاله مراحل مختلف سامانه‌های تصفیه‌ بر پایه هیدروژل، عوامل مؤثر و سازوکار حذف آلاینده‌ها مرور شده است. همچنین، چالش‌های اصلی مطرح در این سامانه‌ها نظیر سینتیک و هم‌دمای جذب، محدوده pH عملیاتی، تداخل و بازیابی هیدروژل‌ها بحث و بررسی شده و در نهایت به ملاحظات مهم اقتصادی مانند پایداری، قابلیت بازمصرف هیدروژل‌ها و بازیابی آلاینده‌ها پرداخته شده ‌است.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Application of Hydrogels in Adsorptive Removal of Aqueous Pollutants

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehran Alizadeh
  • Elham Jalilnejad
  • Reza Rafiee
Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Urmia University of Technology, Postal code: 5716617165, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

Heavy metal ions (e.g., Cd2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, Mg2+) and organic pollutants (like dyes) present in industrial wastewaters are one of the major causes of pollution of groundwater sources. These pollutants are toxic to humans, plants and aquatic life and should be removed from wastewater before disposal. Various treatment technologies have been reported to treat pollutants from aqueous media, such as coagulation and flocculation, oxidation, membrane filtration, and adsorption. Most of these methods are associated with some shortcomings and challenges in terms of applicability, efficiency, and cost. Based on economical aspect, flexibility and simplicity of design, and availability of wide range of adsorbents, adsorption is recommended as an effective method for removal of organic/inorganic pollutants from aqueous media. Hydrogels are three-dimensional flexible polymeric networks with extensive applications in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, agriculture, biotechnology and separation processes fields. Due to the unique physical and chemical characteristics of hydrogels, such as hydrophilicity, swelling ability, high adsorption capacity, the presence of various specific functional groups and modifiability, an increasing research interest in the development and application of novel hydrogels in water and wastewater treatment has emerged. Hydrogels have exhibited superior performance in the adsorptive removal of a wide range of aqueous pollutants including heavy metals and toxic dyes. Due to the lack of an overview on applications of hydrogels in adsorption of pollutants, this review investigates the different steps involved in the hydrogel-based treatment systems, the influencing factors and mechanisms of pollutants removal. Major challenges about adsorption kinetics, operational pH range, interference, and hydrogel recovery are discussed. Finally, important considerations like stability, reusability of hydrogels and resource recovery are discussed for economic and sustainability concerns.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • wastewater treatment
  • adsorption
  • Hydrogel
  • aqueous pollutants
  • recovery
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