بهینه‌سازی و ارتقای غشای فرافیلترکردن PAN برای جداسازی لیگنین از پساب کارخانه کاغذسازی با روش سطح پاسخ

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

سنندج، دانشگاه کردستان، دانشکده مهندسی، گروه مهندسی شیمی، کدپستی 66177

چکیده

فرضیه‌: پساب صنایع کاغذسازی با توجه به دارابودن ترکیبات پلیمری نظیر لیگنین، برای محیط زیست و سلامت عمومی مضر است. در این پژوهش، از غشاهای فرافیلترکردن (UF) و الکتروریسی‌شده (ES) پلی‌آکریلونیتریل (PAN) برای جداسازی لیگنین پساب کارخانه کاغذسازی استفاده شد.
روش‌ها: برای بهبود فرایند فرافیلترکردن و بهینه‌سازی عوامل مؤثر بر آن شامل غلظت پساب، فشار و غلظت PVP در برابر شار و پس‌زنی، روش سطح پاسخ  به‌کار گرفته شد. افزون بر این، از غشاهای ES و نیز ES اصلاح‌شده با بخار DMF برای جدسازی لیگنین استفاده شد. در نهایت، اثر گرفتگی برای هر سه نوع غشای فرافیلترکردن معمولی، ES و ES اصلاح‌شده بررسی شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد، غشای UF برای جداسازی لیگنین از پساب عملکرد شایان توجهی دارد. با افزایش غلظت پساب، شار کاهش ‌یافت، اما پس‌زنی ابتدا افزایش و سپس کاهش یافت. فشار به‌طور خطی موجب افزایش شار و کاهش پس‌زنی شد. اما، این افزایش در فشارهای زیاد با سرعت کندتری انجام شد. برای بهبود اثرآب‌دوستی غشاهای PAN، پلیمر PVP به غشاهای فرافیلترکردن افزوده شد. در نتیجه، شار به‌طور شایان توجهی افزایش یافت، اما اثر منفی بر پس‌زنی داشت. در حالت بهینه حداکثر مقدار شار 14.76L/m2.h و حداکثر مقدار پس زنی برابر %93.91 به‌دست آمد. شار غشای ES بیش از دو برابر شار غشای فرافیلترکردن در نقطه بهینه‌ به‌دست آمد، اما مقدار پس‌زنی کم بود. برای افزایش مقدار پس‌زنی، غشای ES با بخار DMF اصلاح شد. زمان 20min  بخاردهی، زمان بهینه برای اصلاح بود. در نهایت با آزمون گرفتگی، طول عمر غشاهای تولیدشده مقایسه و مشخص شد، غشای ES بیشترین طول عمر گرفتگی برابر 210min  را دارد. غشای ES اصلاح‌شده دارای طول عمر کمتر بود و در زمان 110min گرفته شد. غشای UF نیز پس از 190min گرفته شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Optimization and Enhancement of PAN Ultrafiltration Membrane for Separation of Lignin from Waste Water of Paper Mill Using Response Surface Methodology

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kamil Rozrokh
  • Mehrdad Khamforoush
  • Ayub Moradi
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Postal Code 66177, Iran
چکیده [English]

Hypothesis: Wastewater from paper industries is one the most polluting effluents. Due to presence of polymeric compounds such as lignin, this effluent is harmful for environment and public health. In this study, ordinary and electrospun (ES) polyacrylonitrile (PAN) ultrafiltration membranes were used to separate the lignin from paper mill effluent.
Methods: To improve the ultrafiltration process, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to model and optimize the effective factors including effluent concentration, pressure and PVP concentration against rejection and flux. In addition, ‎the electrospun membranes were used to separate lignin, moreover the electrospun membranes ‎were modified by DMF vapor. Finally, the fouling effect was evaluated on all 3 types of membranes (ordinary, ES, and modied ES).
Findings: The results showed that, the performance of PAN ultrafiltration membrane was acceptable to separate the lignin from the wastewater. In fact, by increasing the waste concentration the flux decreased, but the rejection first increased and then decreased gradually. Pressure increment increased the flux and decreased the rejection linearly, however, this behavior at high pressures was taken place gradually. To improve the hydrophilic effect of PAN membranes, PVP was added to the ultrafiltration membranes. So, the flux increased significantly but PVP had a negative effect on the rejection. At optimum condition, the flux and rejection of ultrafiltration membrane reached 14.76 L/m2.h and 93.91%, respectively. In electrospun membranes the flux increased at least by twice in comparison with the optimized ultrafiltration membrane, though the rejection was lower. To increase the rejection, the electrospun membrane was modified by DMF vapor. For this study, exposing of electrospun membrane to DMF vapor for 20 min gave the best results. Finally, the fouling test was accomplished on all 3 types of membrane. The electrospun membrane displayed the longest fouling time of about 210 min, however, the ultrafiltration and modified electrospun membranes were blocked after 190 and 110 min, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • ultrafiltration
  • lignin separation
  • electrospun membrane
  • rejection
  • flux
  1. Nemerow N.L. and Dasgupta A., Industrial and Hazardous Waste Treatment, New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1991.
  2. Sinclair W.F., Controlling Pollution from Canadian Pulp and Paper Manufacturers: A Federal Perspective, 1990.
  3. Wallberg O., Design of Ultrafiltration Process for Extraction of Lignin from Kraft Black Liquor,Internal Report, Lund University, 2005.
  4. De Wild P., Reith H., and Heeres E., Biomass Pyrolysis for Chemicals, Biofuels, 2, 185-208, 2011.
  5. Vishtal A.G. and Kraslawski A., Challenges in Industrial Applications of Technical Lignins, BioResources, 6, 3547-3568, 2011.
  6. Aadil K.R. and Jha H., Physico-Chemical Properties of Lignin-Alginate Based Films in the Presence of Different Plasticizers, Iran. Polym. J., 25, 661-670, 2016.
  7. Datta J. and Parcheta P., A Comparative Study on Selective Properties of Kraft Lignin–Natural Rubber Composites Containing Different Plasticizers, Iran. Polym. J., 26, 453-466, 2017.
  8. Piazza G., Lora J., and Garcia R., Flocculation of High Purity Wheat Straw Soda Lignin, Bioresour. Technol., 152, 548-551, 2014.
  9. Sathawong S., Sridach W., and Techato K., Lignin: Isolation and Preparing the Lignin Based Hydrogel, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 6, 5879-5888, 2018.
  10. Zakzeski J., Jongerius A.L., Bruijnincx P.C., and Weckhuysen B.M., Catalytic Lignin Valorization Process for the Production of Aromatic Chemicals and Hydrogen, Chem. Sus. Chem., 5, 1602-1609, 2012.
  11. Pokhrel D. and Viraraghavan T., Treatment of Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater-A Review, Sci. Total Environ., 333, 37-58, 2004.
  12. Toczyłowska-Mamińska R., Limits and Perspectives of Pulp and Paper Industry Wastewater Treatment–A Review, Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev., 78, 764-772, 2017.
  13. Wiley A., Ammerlaan A., and Dubey G., Application of Reverse Osmosis to Processing of Spent Liquors from the Pulp and Paper Industry, Tappi J., 50, 455-460, 1967.
  14. Wiley A.J., Dubey G.A., Holderby J.M., and Ammerlaan A.C.F., Concentration of Dilute Pulping Wastes by Reverse Osmosis and Ultrafiltration, J. Water Pollut. Control Fed., 42, 279-289, 1970.
  15. Woerner D.L., and McCarthy J.L. Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor, AIChE Symposium Series, American Institute of Chemical Engineers,1984.
  16. Neytzell-De Wilde F., Recovery of Lignosulphonate from a Calcium Bisulphite Pulp Mill Effluent by Ultrafiltration, Desalination, 67, 495-505, 1987.
  17. Humpert D., Ebrahimi M., and Czermak P., Membrane Technology for the Recovery of Lignin: A Review, Membranes, 6, 42 (1-13), 2016.
  18. Jahanshahi M., Rahimpour A., and Mortazavian N., Preparation, Morphology and Performance Evaluation of Polyvinylalcohol (PVA)/Polyethersulfone (PES) Composite Nanofiltration Membranes for Pulp and Paper Wastewater Treatment, Iran. Polym. J., 21, 375-383, 2012.
  19. Mishra A. and Bhattacharya P., Alkaline Black Liquor Treatment by Batch Electrodialysis, Can. J. Chem. Eng., 62, 723-727, 1984.
  20. Mishra A. and Bhattacharya P., Alkaline Black Liquor Treatment by Continuous Electrodialysis, J. Membr. Sci., 33, 83-95, 1987.
  21. Amerlaan A. and Wiley A., The Engineering Evaluation of Reverse Osmosis as a Method of Processing Spent Liquors of the Pulp and Paper Industry, Meeting of AIChE, 1969.
  22. Wiley A., Scharpf K., Bansal I., and Arps D., Reverse Osmosis Concentration of Spent Liquor Solids in Press Liquors from High-Density Pulps, Tappi J. 55, 1671-1675., 1972.
  23. Hill M.K., Violette D.A., and Woerner D.L., Lowering Kraft Black Liquor Viscosity by Ultrafiltration, Sep. Sci. Technol., 23, 1789-1798, 1988.
  24. Kirkman A., Gratzl J., and Edwards L., Kraft Lignin Recovery by Ultrafiltration: Economic Feasibility and Impact on the Kraft Recovery System, Tappi J., 69, 110-114, 1986.
  25. Olsen O., Membrane Technology in the Pulp and Paper Industry, Desalination, 35, 291-302, 1980.
  26. Satyanarayana S., Bhattacharya P., and De S., Flux Decline During Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor Using Different Flow Modules: A Comparative Study, Sep. Purif. Technol., 20, 155-167, 2000.
  27. Yong M., Zhang Y., Sun S., and Liu W., Properties of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Ultrafiltration Membrane Improved by Lignin: Hydrophilicity and Antifouling, J. Membr. Sci., 575, 50-59, 2019.
  28. Van Vught F.A., Membrane Formation by Phase Inversion in Multicomponent Polymer System, PhD Thesis, University of Twente, 1998.
  29. Dadari S., Rahimi M., and Zinadini S., Crude oil Desalter Effluent Treatment Using High Fux Synthetic Nanocomposite NF Membrane-Optimization by Response Surface Methodology, Desalination, 377, 34-46, 2016.
  30. Alavi S.A., Kargari A., Karimi M., Sanaeepur H., and Lariji S., Effects of Preparation Conditions on Morphology of Polyacrylonitrile Micro/Ultrafiltration Membrane and Its Application in Protein and Fat Separation from Milk, lran. J. Polym. Sci. Technol. (Persian), 27, 63-78, 2014.
  31. Chen Y., Zhang Y., Liu J., Zhang H., and Wang K., Preparation and Antibacterial Property of Polyethersulfone Ultrafiltration Hybrid Membrane Containing Halloysite Nanotubes Loaded with Copper Ions, Chem. Eng. J., 210, 298-308, 2012.
  32. Chen S.Y. and Lin P.L., Optimization of Operating Parameters for the Metal Bioleaching Process of Contaminated Soil, Sep. Purif. Technol., 71, 178-185, 2010.
  33. Aslan N., Application of Response Surface Methodology and Central Composite Rotatable Design for Modeling and Optimization of a Multi-Gravity Separator for Chromite Concentration, Powder Technol., 185, 80-86, 2008.
  34. Aslan N., Application of Response Surface Methodology and Central Composite Rotatable Design for Modeling the Influence of Some Operating Variables of a Multi-Gravity Separator for Coal Cleaning, Fuel, 86, 769-776, 2007.
  35. Aslan N. and Cebeci Y., Application of Box-Behnken Design and Response Surface Methodology for Modeling of Some Turkish Coals, Fuel, 86, 90-97, 2007.
  36. Mulder M., Basic Principles of Membrane Technology, Springer Netherlands, 71-156, 1996.
  37. Gebru K. A. and Das Ch., Effects of Solubility Parameter Differences Among PEG, PVP and CA on the Preparation of Ultrafiltration Membranes: Impacts of Solvents and Additives on Morphology, Chin. J. Chem. Eng., 7, 911-923, 2017.
  38. Liu C., Li X., Liu T., Liu Z., Li N., Zhang Y., Xiao C., and Feng X., Microporous CA/PVDF Membranes Based on Electrospun Nanofibers with Controlled Crosslinking Induced by Solvent Vapor, J. Membr. Sci., 512, 1-12, 2016.
  39. Huang L., Manickam S.S., and McCutcheon J.R., Increasing Strength of Electrospun Nanofiber Membranes for Water Filtration Using Solvent Vapor, J. Membrane Sci., 436, 213-220, 2013.
  40. Chen C., Wang L., and Huang Y., Crosslinking of the Electrospun Polyethylene Glycol/Cellulose Acetate Composite Fibers as Shape-Stabilized Phase Change Materials, Mater. Lett., 63, 569-571, 2009.