بهینه‌سازی شرایط پخت و اثر مقدار نرم‌کننده بر خواص مکانیکی و گرمایی رزین اپوکسی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کاشان، دانشگاه کاشان، دانشکده شیمی، گروه شیمی فیزیک، صندوق پستی 51167-87317

2 کاشان، دانشگاه کاشان، دانشکده مهندسی مکانیک، گروه مکانیک جامدات، صندوق پستی 51167-87317

10.22063/jipst.2021.1776

چکیده

فرضیه: سامانه‌های اپوکسی (EP) به‌دلیل خواص منحصر به‌فرد فیزیکی و شیمیایی از پر مصرف‌ترین رزین‌ها در صنایع مختلف از جمله پوشش‌دهی، تجهیزات الکترونیک و قطعات کامپوزیتی در جهان هستند. با وجود کاربرد گسترده، اپوکسی‌ها به‌دلیل داشتن ساختار بی‌شکل، چقرمگی ضعیف‌تری نسبت به پلیمرهای گرمانرم نیمه‌بلوری نشان می‌دهند. عوامل بسیاری از جمله مقدار فاز نرم‌کننده، دما و زمان پخت بر خواص مکانیکی رزین اپوکسی اثر معناداری دارند. در این پژوهش، اثر سه عامل مقدار پلی‌یورتان (A)، دما (B) و زمان پخت (C) بر خواص مکانیکی و ساختار مولکولی رزین اپوکسی بررسی شده است.
روش‌ها: برای بهینه‌سازی خواص مکانیکی این کامپوزیت‌ها از روش پاسخ سطح، طرح مرکب مرکزی (RSM/CCD) استفاده شد. خواص مکانیکی شامل استحکام نهایی و درصد ازدیاد طول تا پارگی با آزمون کشش به‌دست آمد. همچنین، خواص گرمایی همچون دمای انتقال شیشه‌ای (Tg) و مدول ذخیره با آزمون دینامیکی-مکانیکی گرمایی (DMTA) مطالعه شد. در نهایت، از شبیه‌سازی دینامیک مولکولی برای تعیین اثر دمای تاب‌کاری بر انرژی برهم‌کنش میان اپوکسی و پلی‌یورتان استفاده شد. همچنین، ساختار شیمیایی کامپوزیت‌های اپوکسی-پلی‌یورتان با آزمون‌های پراش‌سنجی پرتو X، طیف‌نمایی زیرقرمز تبدیل فوریه (FTIR)، میکروسکوپی الکترونی پویشی (SEM) با پاشنده انرژی پرتو X و بازتاب نفوذی (DRS) مشخص شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد، دمای انتقال شیشه‌ای و خواص مکانیکی در رزین اپوکسی به‌شدت به دمای پخت و مقدار فاز نرم‌کننده وابسته است. همچنین، مقادیر مطلوب پارامترهای A ،B و C برای داشتن حداکثر استحکام کششی به‌ترتیب %4 وزنی، 100 درجه سلسیوس و 2.4h به‌دست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Optimization of Curing Conditions and Effect of Plasticizer Amount on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Epoxy Resin

نویسندگان [English]

  • Marzieh Sarafrazi 1
  • Ahmad Reza Ghasemi 2
  • Masood Hamadanian 1
1 Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167, Iran
2 Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167, Iran
چکیده [English]

Hypothesis: Epoxy (EP) systems, due to their unique physical and chemical properties, are one of the most widely used resins in various industries including coatings, electronic equipment and composite components in the world. Despite this widespread use, epoxies exhibit weaker toughness properties than semi-crystalline polymers due to their amorphous structure. Many factors such as the amount of softening phase, temperature, and time have a significant effect on the mechanical properties of this resin. Thus, we investigated the effect of three factors including polyurethane content (A), curing temperature (B) and time (C) on the mechanical properties and molecular structure of epoxy resin.
Methods: Response surface methodology/central composite design (RSM/CCD) was used to optimize the mechanical properties of these composites. The mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength and elongation-at-break of the samples were obtained by tensile test. Furthermore, the thermal properties such as glass transition temperature (Tg) and storage modulus were measured by a dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). Ultimately, a molecular dynamics simulation was used to determine the effect of annealing temperature on the interaction energy between the epoxy and polyurethane. In this respect, the chemical structure of the EP/PU composites was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflection (DRS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).
Findings: The results showed that the Tg and mechanical properties of EP resin strongly depended upon cure temperature and plasticizer phase. The optimal values of parameters A, B and C for maximum tensile strength were 4% by weight, 100°C and 2.4 h, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • RSM/CCD method
  • epoxy-polyurethane composite
  • mechanical properties
  • post curing time
  • post curing temperature
  1. Goyat M.S., Rana S., Halder S., and Ghosh P.K., Facile Fabrication of Epoxy-TiO2 Nanocomposites: A Critical Analysis of TiO2 Impact on Mechanical Properties and Toughening Mechanisms, Ultrason. Sonochem., 40, 861-73, 2018.
  2. Wu Z., Gao S., Chen L., Jiang D., Shao Q., Zhang B., Zhai Z., Wang C., Zhao M., Ma Y., and Zhang X., Electrically Insulated Epoxy Nanocomposites Reinforced with Synergistic Core–Shell SiO2@MWCNTs and Montmorillonite Bifillers, Macromol. Chem. Phys., 218, 1700357-67,2017.
  3. Kumar Singh S., Singh S., Kumar A., and Jain, A., Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of TiO2 Dispersed Epoxy Composites, Eng. Fract. Mech., 184, 241-248, 2017.
  4. Shabani N., Hamadanian M., Ghasemi A.R., and Sarafrazi M., Physicochemical and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy/Polyurethane/Nickel Manganite Nanocomposite: A Response Surface Methodology/Central Composite Designs Study, J. Inorg. Organomet. Polym. Mater., 28, 1-12, 2018.
  5. Ashrafi M., Ghasemi A.R., and Hamadanian M., Optimization of Thermo-Mechanical and Antibacterial Properties of Epoxy/Polyethylene Glycol/MWCNTs Nanocomposites Using Response Surface Methodology and Investigation Thermal Cycling Fatigue, Polym. Test., 78, 105946, 2019.
  6. Shahi S., Roghani-Mamaqani H., Salami-Kalajahi M., and Ebrahimi H., Preparation of Thermally-Resistant Nanohybrids Based on Novolac and Epoxy Resins and Epoxidized Carbon Nanotubes, Iran. J. Polym. Sci. Technol. (Persian), 31, 373-383, 2018.
  7. Karami Z. and Zohuriaan-Mehr M., A Novel Ultra-High Swelling Organogel: An Epoxy Resin Derived Gelator for Alcohols and Polar Organic Liquids, Iran. J. Polym. Sci. Technol., (Persian), 33, 318-331, 2020.
  8. Liu K., Sun-Mou L., Jin-Lin H., and Kuo-Huang H., Properties of Sugarcane Fiber/ Polyurethane-Crosslinked Epoxy Composites under Different Interfacial Treatments, Polym. Compos, 41, 4277-4287, 2020.
  9. Zhang L., Jiao H., Jiu H., Chang J., Zhang Sh., and Zhao Y., Thermal, Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Polyurethane/(3-Aminopropyl) Triethoxysilane Functionalized Graphene/Epoxy Resin Interpenetrating Shape Memory Polymer Composites, Compos: Part A, 90, 286-295, 2016.
  10. Du H., Zhao C. X., Lin J., Guo J., Wang B., Hu Z., Shao Q., Pan D., Wujcik E.K., and Guo Z., Carbon Nanomaterials in Direct Liquid Fuel Cells, Chem. Record, 18, 1365-1372, 2018.
  11. Ramalingam P., Sethu K., Mayandi T., Srinivasan I., Jerin L., Rajesh R., and Suresh G., A study on E-Glass Fiber Reinforced Interpenetrating Polymer Network (Vinylester/Polyurethane) Laminate’s Flexural Analysis, Mater. Today, 33, 854-858 2020.
  12. Kausar A., Interpenetrating Polymer Network and Nanocomposite IPN of Polyurethane/Epoxy: A Review on Fundamentals and Advancements, Polym-Plast. Technol., 58, 691-706, 2019.
  13. Hongling Y., Hu M., Yao D., Lin H., and Zheng B., Tribological and Thermomechanical Properties of Epoxy-matrix Nanocomposites Containing Montmorillonite Nanoclay Intercalated with Polybutadiene-Based Quaternary Ammonium Salt, Plast. Rubber Compos., 49, 389-399, 2020.
  14. Ghozali M., Triwulandari E., and Haryono A., Preparation and Characterization of Polyurethane-Modified Epoxy with Various Types of Polyol, Macromol. Symp., 353, 154–160, 2015.
  15. Soares Bluma G., Bruno M., Barros D.N., and Silva A.A., Epoxy Modified with Urea-Based ORMOSIL and Isocyanate-Functionalized Polybutadiene: Viscoelastic and Adhesion Properties, Compos. B. Eng, 168, 334-341, 2019.
  16. Liying J., Qi P., Shi K., Liu X., Ma W., Lin S., Zhang F., Jia X., Cai Q., and Yang X., High Performance Epoxy-based Composites for Cryogenic Use: A Approach Based on Synergetic Strengthening Effects of Epoxy Grafted Polyurethane and MWCNTs-NH2, Compos. Sci. Technol., 184, 107865-107875, 2019.
  17. Ashrafi M., Hamadanian M., Mirsafai S., Torabi K., Investigation and Optimization of Mechanical Properties of Nitrile-Butadiene Rubber/Polyvinyl Chloride/NiFe2O4 Nanocomposite, Fibers Polym., 20, 2247-2253, 2019.
  18. Prusty R.K., Rathore D.K., Sahoo S., Parida V., and Ray B.C., Mechanical Behaviour of Graphene Oxide Embedded Epoxy Nanocomposite at Sub- and Above- Zero Temperature Environments, Compos. Commun., 3, 47-50, 2017.
  19. Cheng Z., Wang H., and and Zhou Q., Waterborne Isocyanate-Free Polyurethane Epoxy Hybrid Coatings Synthesized from Sustainable Fatty Acid Diamine, Green Chem., 22, 1329-1337, 2020.
  20. Yuyue G. and Lin S., Synthesis and Characterization of UV-cured Epoxy Acrylate Resin with Cyclic Methacrylate as Diluents, Pigm. Resin Technol., 2020.
  21. Carbas R.J., Marques E.A., Da Silva L.F., and Lopes A.M., Effect of Cure Temperature on the Glass Transition Temperature and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Adhesives, J. Adhes. Sci. Technol., 90, 104-119, 2014.
  22. Zou Z.P., Liu X.B., Wu Y.P., Tang B., Chen M., and Zhao X.L., Hyperbranched Polyurethane as a Highly Efficient Toughener in Epoxy Thermosets with Reaction-Induced Microphase Separation, RSC Adv., 6, 18060-18070, 2016.
  23. Jahani M., Fatahi H., and Mortezaeei M., Effect of Aromatic Amine Structure as a Curing Agent on Molecular Packing and Mechanical Properties of Cured Epoxy Resin, Iran. J. Polym. Sci. Technol., (Persian), 32, 267-276, 2019.
  24. Dareh M., Beheshty M., and Bazgir S., Effect of Type and Amount of Accelerator on Reactivity and Curing Behavior of Epoxy/Dicyandiamide/Accelerator System, Iran. J. Polym. Sci. Technol., (Persian), 33, 332-341, 2020.
  25. Gomari S., Ghasemi I., and Karimi S., Namdarpour Bengar E., and Akbarshahi M., Optimization of Gas Barrier Properties of Nanocomposites of HDPE/Nanoclay Using Response Surface Methodology, Iran. J. Polym. Sci. Technol., (Persian), 33, 25-39, 2020.
  26. Mirsafai S., Torabi K., Ashrafi M., and Hamadanian M., Tensile Strength and Elongation of NBR/PVC/CuFe2O4 NBR/PVC/CuFe2O4 Magnetic Nanocomposites: A Response Surface Methodology Optimization, Bull. Mater. Sci., 43, 1-8, 2020.
  27. Gilmour S.G., Response Surface Designs for Experiments in Bioprocessing, Biometrics, 62, 323–331, 2006.
  28. Shabani N., Ghasemi A.R., and Hamadanian M., Ultrasonic-assisted Rapid Preparation of Three-phase Nanocomposites: The Effects of Zinc Manganite Nanoparticles and Polyurethane on the Thermomechanical, Physicochemical, and Antibacterial Properties of Polymer Matrix Composites, J. Elast. Plast., 52, 2019.
  29. Akherati S.S.R., Mortezaei M., and Amiri A.I., Improving Fracture Toughness of Epoxy Nanocomposites by Silica Nanoparticles, Iran. J. Polym. Sci. Technol. (Persian), 30, 3-17, 2017.
  30. Sarafrazi M., Ghasemi A.R., and Hamadanian M., Synergistic Effect between CuCr2O4 Nanoparticles and Plasticizer on Mechanical Properties of EP/PU/CuCr2O4 Nanocomposites: Experimental Approach and Molecular Dynamics Simulation, J. Appl. Polym., 137, 494225-494236, 2020.
  31. Sarafrazi M., Hamadanian M., and Ghasemi A.R., Optimize Epoxy Matrix with RSM/CCD Method and Influence of Multi-wall Carbon Nanotube on Mechanical Properties of Epoxy/Polyurethane, Mech. Mater., 138, 103154-103170, 2019.
  32. Shadlou S., Majid R.A., and Mehrdad Shokrieh M., Studies on Fracture Behavior of Epoxy/DWNT Nanocomposites by Molecular Dynamics Simulation,Iran. J. Polym. Sci. Technol., (Persian), 25, 315-322, 2012.
  33. Cheng S., Carroll B., Lu W., Fan F., Carrillo J.M., Martin H., Holt A.P., Kang N.G., Bocharova V., Mays J.W., and Sumpter B.G., Interfacial Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites: Role of Chain Rigidity and Dynamic Heterogeneity Length Scale, Macromolecules, 50, 2397-2406, 2017.
  34. Sun Y., Chen L., Cui L., Zhang Y., and Du X., Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Cross-Linked Epoxy Resin and Its Interaction Energy with Graphene under Two Typical Force Fields, Comput. Mater. Sci., 143, 240-247, 2018.
  1. Faraji S., Alahyarizadeh G., Minuchehr A., Aghaei M., and Arab B., Molecular Dynamics Study on the Effect of Silicon Carbide Nanoparticles on Mechanical and Thermal Properties of an Araldite Epoxy Resin, Iran. J. Polym. Sci. Technol., (Persian), 32, 211-224, 2019.